The US Mint produced the $20 Liberty Gold Double Eagles from 1849 to 1907. The coins were struck at the US Mint facilities in Philadelphia, New Orleans, San Francisco, Carson City and Denver. Their composition is 90% gold and 10% copper with each coin containing 0.9675 oz of gold. Almost 104 million Liberty Gold Double Eagles were minted. Coins from certain years of production and/or mint facilities are now very rare and therefore valuable.
The original design of the Liberty Gold Double Eagle underwent two major changes over the years of its production. Therefore, we can distinguish three subtypes. Type I was minted from 1850-1866, Type II from 1866-1876 and Type III from 1877-1907.
The obverse side depicts a leftward facing Lady Liberty in profile in the style of Greco-Roman sculptures. She wears a pearl crown that has "LIBERTY" inscribed on it. Thirteen stars appear along the outer edges of the coin, representing the 13 original colonies of the United States of America. The year of mintage is inscribed underneath Lady Liberty's portrait.
The motif on the reverse side of the $20 Liberty Gold Double Eagle is derived from the Great Seal of the United States. It shows an eagle with a shield holding an olive branch and arrows. "E PLURIBUS UNUM" is inscribed on a double banner that the eagle is holding up left and right. Thirteen stars appear as a halo together with an arc of rays above the eagle's head. The coin's $20 denomination (TWENTY D.) and “UNITED STATES OF AMERICA” are engraved along the coin's edge. Liberty Gold Double Eagles that were minted in New Orleans (mint mark: O), San Francisco (mint mark: S), Carson City (mint mark: CC) or Denver (mint mark: D) contain a mint mark just above the denomination. However, coins that were minted in Philadelphia don't have any mint mark.
The production of the Type II version of the coin started in 1866. The most noticeable change was the addition of the motto “IN GOD WE TRUST” within the enlarged circle of stars on the reverse side. The other changes are less noticeable and affected the sides of the eagle's shield, the eagle's wings and tail feathers, the olive branch and the inscription "E PLURIBUS UNUM".
The Type III Liberty Gold Double Eagles were produced from 1877 until the end of mintage in 1907. The inscription of the denomination on the reverse side was changed from "TWENTY D." to "TWENTY DOLLARS". Furthermore, the motto "IN GOD WE TRUST" was inscribed in bolder font and "E PLURIBUS UNUM" was enlarged. Other minor changes were made to the depiction of Lady Liberty's neck and her pearl crown.
In 1900, some hardly perceptible design alterations were made as well, for example the smoothing of the back of the eagle's neck.
|Gold Weight||Face Value||Diameter|
|0.9675 oz||20 Dollars||34 mm|
|Philadelphia||1849 - 1907|
|New Orleans||1850 - 1861, 1879|
|San Francisco||1854 - 1885, 1887 - 1907|
|Carson City||1870 - 1879, 1882 - 1885,
1889 - 1893
|Denver||1906 - 1907|
Due to the California Gold Rush in the 1840's which greatly enhanced the amount of gold circulating within the economy, the American Congress approved new denominations of gold coins to be issued. The $20 Liberty Gold Double Eagle was one of two newly issued gold coins (the Type 1 Liberty Gold Dollar was the other). Production lasted from 1849 until 1907.
Chief Engraver James B. Longacre of the Philadelphia Mint designed the $20 Liberty Gold Double Eagle. Only two or three coins were struck in 1849 as pattern coins in proof condition. Out of those, only one is known to have survived and is now on display at the National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian.
Commercial minting of the $20 Liberty Gold Double Eagle (Type I) started in 1850 at the mint facilities in Philadelphia and New Orleans. The Type II design coins with the added motto "IN GOD WE TRUST" were struck from 1866 until 1876. The Type II Gold Double Eagle was replaced by the Type III version in 1877. Some very slight design changes occurred again in 1900.
Even though production of the $20 Liberty Gold Double Eagles lasted from 1849 to 1907, only the US Mint in Philadelphia produced them every year during this period (albeit only as proofs in the years 1883, 1884, 1887).
In 1907, the $20 Saint Gaudens Gold Double Eagles replaced the $20 Liberty Gold Double Eagles.
Annual mintage of $20 Liberty Double Eagles at the various US Mint branches varied between 571 coins (Philadelphia 1882) and 6,256,699 coins (Philadelphia 1904). Proof coins were almost exclusively minted at the Philadelphia branch of the US Mint and proof mintage varied between 1 coin and 158 coins (1903). Liberty Double Eagles were only minted as proofs in 1883, 1884 and 1887.
Click here to see a table with detailed mintage numbers.
In 1861, Anthony C. Paquet modified the reverse side of the coins but only a limited number of these modified coins were minted in San Francisco (up to 1 month production of these modified coins) and Philadelphia (unknown mintage but 3 coins are known to exist) before the design reverted back to the original reverse.
Some of the coins that were minted in 1861 in New Orleans were struck under the authority of the breakaway State of Louisiana. However, they are visually undistinguishable from the standard coins.
The coins that were minted in Philadelphia in 1854 exist in two varieties. The variation concerns the size of the date on the obverse side, so there exist coins with a larger and a smaller date. The numbers on the coins with the large date are much closer to the liberty bust than on the small date coins.
Coins struck in 1873 exist with the last digit of the year minted as an "Open 3" or "Closed 3". The difference is hardly noticeable. The "Open 3" variation is far more common and the "Closed 3" variation nowadays quite scarce. According to coin expert Gordon Wrubel, the two varieties can be distinguished by closely looking at the ball at the extremity of the lower curve of the 3. On "Open 3" coins, the ball has about the same diameter as the opening of the 3 and would pass through it. On "Closed 3" coins, the opening is much narrower so that the ball could not pass through it.
Aside from proof coins, the 1861 "Paquet" coins are undoubtedly the rarest issue of Liberty Gold Double Eagles.
The coins minted in Philadelphia are hard to find for the year 1882 (571 coins) and 1886 (1.000 coins). The coins minted in New Orleans are rare for 1854 (3.250 coins), 1856 (2.250 coins) and 1879 (2.325 coins) and the coins minted in Carson City are rare for 1870 (3.789 coins) and 1871 (17.387 coins).
Severely limited numbers of proof coins were almost exclusively minted in Philadelphia. The exception to this rule is that a total of 7 proof coins were minted in Denver in 1906 and 1907 and 1 proof coin was minted in San Francisco in 1854. Annual proof mintage never exceeded a maximum of 158 coins.
A limited number of 1866 Liberty Gold Double Eagles with the mint mark S (San Francisco) and without the motto “IN GOD WE TRUST” may still exist. The San Francisco Mint switched production to the Type II design sometime in 1866 only after having used up their leftover reverse dies from 1865.